IIBMS MIB CASE STUDY SOLUTIONS – Even though Absolute ads have been depicted in different media, the central theme of the campaign has remained unchanged (the bottle and the two-word slogan) over the years. In light of the above statement, do you think that the campaign will manage to hold sway or lose in impact in the near future? Give reasons to support your arguments.

Even though Absolute ads have been depicted in different media, the central theme of the campaign has remained unchanged (the bottle and the two-word slogan) over the years. In light of the above statement, do you think that the campaign will manage to hold sway or lose in impact in the near future? Give reasons to support your arguments.
Even though Absolute ads have been depicted in different media, the central theme of the campaign has remained unchanged (the bottle and the two-word slogan) over the years. In light of the above statement, do you think that the campaign will manage to hold sway or lose in impact in the near future? Give reasons to support your arguments.

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Marketing Management

 
CASE: 1    Absolute Vodka: creating advertising history
 
The Absolute advertising campaign was often regarded by advertising experts as one of the most brilliant, innovative, successful and long-running campaigns ever. The several prestigious awards that the campaign has won since its first ad was launched stand as testimony to this fact (See Table) for details of some of the awards).
Table:    A brief list of awards won by Absolut advertisements
Year
Award(s)
1989
The Kelly Grand Prize for the ad ‘Absolutla’
1990
Grand EFFIE Award for Absolut advertising campaign
1991
The Kelly Grand Prize for the ad ‘Absolut Glasnost’
1992
Award of Excellence’ for animation on the Internet by the communication Arts magazine
1993
Absolut Advertising Campaign introduced in the ‘Hall of Fame’ by the American Marketing Association
2000
Four Cresta Awards for international Advertising for the ads ‘Absolut Accessory’, ‘Absolut Auckland’, ‘Absolut Voyeur’ and ‘Absolut Space’ from Creative Standards International and the International Advertising Association
2002
Insight Award for Best online advertising
2003
EFFIE Gold Award for sustained success of the Absolut advertising campaign
 
 
 
‘Absolut adventure’: the making of a legend
In early 1979, Absolut vodka launched in the USA at the liquor trade convention held at Fairmont Hotel in New Orleans. Initially, the company concentrated its marketing efforts in and around New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Boston because these were the places where new trends were created, media attention was intense and the bar culture prevailed. V&S had sold around 25,000 cases of Absolut vodka when advertising agency TBWA took over its ad account in late 1979. Two at TBWA, Graham Turner and Geoff Hayes, were assigned the job of creating the ads for the ‘still not so popular Swedish vodka’. The duo began by getting familiar with the product’s  taste and conducting extensive research on different liquor ads of the previous 10 years. They found that most ads were pretentious and pompous, featuring people dressed in expensive attire and living lavish lifestyles with a small liquor bottle tucked in some corner. Moreover, none of the ads was targeted at people below 40.
After extensive research and effort, the admen came up with three different advertisement samples. The first featured a Russian soldier looking through a pair of binoculars with each lens reflecting the Absolut vodka bottle, accompanied by a slogan that read ‘Here’s something that Russians would really love to put behind bars.’ This ad was aimed at challenging the Russian vodka brand Stolichnaya. The second ad featured some of the favourite pastimes of Swedes, with a picture of the bottle; the slogan read ‘There’s nothing the Swedes enjoy more when it’s cold.’ The third ad featured only the Absolut vodka bottle with a halo over it, with a two-word slogan: ‘Absolut Perfection’ (a modified version of one of the ads created at NW Ayer). This ad was designed with the intention of humorously portraying as pure and natural.
The admen had come up with a dozen designs, which depicted the bottle in different ways accompanied by a two-word slogan. It was one of the simplest themes anyone associated with Absolute had created up until then. The ads featured the Absolut bottle, a description of the product and the two-word slogan with one word describing the theme and the other the brand name itself. In early 1980, V&S launched the first advertisement, ‘Absolut Perfection’, along these lines. Since then, the bottle has been retained as the centerpiece for every advertisement of Absolute vodka accompanied by a two-word slogan.
All Absolute ads were published in popular American newspapers and magazines like Newsweek, Time, New York, Los Angeles, New Yorker, New York Times, Interview and GQ. Carillon decided to continue using the same ad concept with a variety of themes. Experts felt that by using the same concept to depict various events, people or things, Absolut ads always gave people something to think about. Soon the ads had become a topic of interest among liquor consumers.
People began drinking Absolute not only because it was a new premium brand available on the market, but also to experience the image that its advertisement had created—that of simplicity and purity. Analysts credited the popularity of Absolute to its advertisements as they involved viewers in a creative process. Within three years, v Absolute vodka was being exported to 16 different markets worldwide as well as its home country, Sweden. In 1984, V&S exported six million litres of Absolute vodka. In the USA, sales were doubling every year (see the table).
Table    V&S: Income statements, 1997-2002 (SEK million)
Particulars/year
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
Net Sales
3223.6
3,446.9
4028.6
5711.5
6725.1
9092.8
Other operating revenues
(10.3)
32.3
43.2
104.3
175.3
149.6
Operating Expenses
(2449.8)
(2626.8)
(2924.9)
(4177.4)
(4741.2)
(6686.6)
Depreciation, amortization and write-downs
(105.7)
(130.7)
(85.6)
(235.0)
(394.9)
(519.2)
Non-recurring items
(17.0)
287.3
(143.3)
46.1
Operating Profit
640.8
1009.0
918.0
1449.5
1764.3
2036.6
Financial items, net
31.5
50.6
46.0
(16.2)
(292.6)
(167.6)
Profit before taxes
672.3
1059.6
964.0
1433.3
1471.7
1869.0
Taxes
(175.0)
(197.3)
(273.5)
(437.2)
(462.0)
(598.5)
Minority share
(0.4)
(0.8)
(0.3)
(61.9)
(0.5)
(5.7)
Net profit for the period
496.9
861.5
690.2
934.2
1009.2
1264.8
In 1985, Michel Roux, President of Carillon and in charge of US distribution, came up with the idea of getting Absolut bottle painted and using it as an ad. Initially, there was opposition to this idea as it was a departure from the central idea of having the bottle photographed. However, Roux went ahead and commissioned celebrated artist Andy Warhol to paint the bottle, marking the beginning of Absolut’s association with art. The painting attracted a lot of accolades and the celebrity association gave the brand a great deal of mileage.
Thereafter, several artists painted their own interpretations of the Absolut bottle. Analysts observed that painting an Absolut bottle had apparently become an issue of pride for many leading artists. Big names such as Keith Haring, Kenny Scharf, Stephen Sprouse, Edward Ruscha, Arman and Britto made their own interpretation of the Absolut bottle (see Table given below for details). The above exercise was not only in the form of painting, but also in sculpture, glasswork, photography, folk art, wood work, computer/digital art and many other media. As Absolut’s association with the world of art gave the brand a lot of media attention and publicity, the company began regularly publishing these art ads along with the regular ads. Analysts noted that what began as an advertising campaign to promote an unknown Swedish vodka brand had become a part of American culture.  
Table        Absolut’s association with art and fashion
Year 
Name
Description
ABSOLUT ART 
1990
Absolut Glasnost
This art collection featured paintings by 26 Russian artists including Alexander Kosolapov, Evgeny Mitta and Leonid Lamm.
 1993
Absolut Latino
This collection featured artwork contributed by 16 artists from South and Central America. This collection showcased the artist’s interpretations of the Absolut bottle in traditional and contemporary Latino themes depicting the relationship between reality and illusion. Some of the artist who contributed to this collection were: Alberto Icaza, Vik Muniz and Monica Castillo.
 1997
Absolut Expressions 
This collection featured art work contributed by 14 African and America artists. The artists (including Anita Philyaw, Maliaka Favorite and Frank Bowling among others) presented their interpretations of the bottle in traditional African art, early American folk art and in abstract imagery through mediums like canvas, quilts, and sculptures.
 1998-99
Absolut Originals
This included paintings contributed by 16 European artists including Damien Hirst, Maurizio Cattelan and Francesco Clemente. 
 2000
Absolut Ego (Paris) Absolut Exhibition (New York) Absolut Art
 Collections featured paintings contributed by famous artists like Damien Hirst and Nam June Paik.                                                                                                
 Absolut FASHION  
 1995
Absolut Newton                                                        
This campaign featured designer wear created by famous fashion designers John Galliano, Helmut Lang, Anna Molinari and Martine Sitbon. It was first featured as an eight-page insert in Vogue, a popular fashion magazine.
 1997
Absolut Versace 
This eight-page insert in Vogue featured designer wear created by Gianni Versace, the famous Italian designer. Gianni’s creations were modeled by famous models like Naomi Campbell, Kate Moss, Mark Findley and Marcus Schenkenberg, and photographed by famous fashion photographer Herb Ritts.  
 1999
Absolut Tom Ford/ Absolut Gucci 
This campaign included designer collections created by Tom Ford (of Gucci) a famous American fashion designer. The campaign was shot at a discotheque in Paris and was included as an eight-page insert in Vogue.
 2000
Absolut Gaultier 
This campaign featured designs by Jean Paul Gaultier, inspired by Absolut and other Swedish legends. It was included as an eight-page insert in Vogue and other popular European fashion magazines. 
Roux now began toying with the idea of making ads that were ‘stylish, hip and audacious’. With this began Absolut’s association with the world of fashion. In 1988, Roux commissioned the famous American fashion designer David Cameron to design an advertisement for the bottle. Instead of featuring the Absolute bottle, Cameron designed a dress (with the Absolute Vodka name and the text printed on it) that was modelled by a famous model of the day, Rachel Williams (she ‘represented’ the bottle). This print ad, named ‘Absolute Cameron’, was launched in February 1988 and gained tremendous publicity. On the day of its publication, 5000 women reportedly called TBWA wanting to buy the dress shown in the ad.
This led to the next phase of Absolute’s advertising strategy, wherein the bottle began to be represented in new, innovative ways. By the mid-1990s TBWA ran several ads linked to fashion, like Absolute Fashion (eight pages of coverage in Vogue), Absolute Style and Absolute Menswear, in popular fashion magazines like Vogue, Elle and GQ (see Table for details).
As the themes for the advertisements became more complicated, the cost of producing them went up substantially. For instance, some of the Absolute Christmas ads cost more than US$1 million to produce. Thus, over the years, V&S continually increased its advertising budget. TBWA spent approximately US$25 million on Absolute ads in 1990, an increase from US$750,000 in 1981. In 1997, Absolute also became associated with The Ice Hotel (an entire hotel made from ice) in Jukkasjarvi, Sweden. An ‘Absolute Ice Bar’ was added to the Ice Hotel, where different kinds of drinks made from various Absolute brands were served in glasses also made of ice.
By the end of the 1990s, Absolute ads began targeting not only the sophisticated, upper-class consumers but also sports fans, professionals, artists, intellectuals and even those who could not comprehend subjects like art and literature. Clearly, V&S was now aiming at a broader set of customers as the ads were featured in almost all kinds of magazines: sports, entertainment, art and fashion, business, and so on. By now the company had launched more than 1000 Absolut ads all over the world.
‘Absolut continuity’: the brand marches strongly ahead
By 2ooo, Absolute advertisements were recognized the world over for their stylish, humorous and innovative attributes. As people began collecting the ads, analyst observed that the brand had become an advertising phenomenon. More importantly, sales of Absolute were increasing over the years. Apart from the USA, Absolute was now exported to Russia and many Asian and Latin America countries. The brand generated most of its sales in the USA, Canada, Sweden, Greece, Spain, Germany and Mexico. In 2002, total sales stood at 7.5 million cases, making it the world’s largest premium spirit brands.
In 2002, Absolute was presented with the international advertising industry’s most prestigious awards for its online advertising on its website, www. absolut.com, and the Absolutes fashion campaign. Advertising experts regarded the website as ‘a premier online brand and lifestyle destination’.
Commenting on the creativity that Absolute ads stood for, Richard W. Lewis, author of Absolutes book: The Absolute Vodka Advertising Story, says, ‘Readers enjoy a relationship with this advertising that they have with few other advertising campaigns, especially in the print media. They are challenged, entertained, tickled, inspired and maybe even befuddled as they try to figure out what is happening inside an Absolute ad.’
In January 2003, the company launched Absolut Vanilia. Unlike the previous variants, Absolut Vanilia was launched in a white bottle. The launch of the new flavour was not only supported by print advertisements, but also with radio and outdoor ad campaigns. These ads were launched in a phased manner, beginning with teaser ads in different magazines in April 2003 followed by interactive online ads. The online ads were featured on websites like Maxim.com, EntertainmentWeekly.com, style.com, and Wired.com. These ads were created specifically to suit the product tag-line ‘a different kind of vanilla’.
In October 2003, in line with its penchant for creativity/innovation, Absolut ventured into the world of music with the launch of the Absolut Three Tracks project. This campaign featured music created by different artists according to their interpretations of the Absolut bottle. Analysts felt that the Absolut Three Tracks project, had opened am entirely new chapter in brand communications, as it enabled users to ‘listen to the Absolut brand.’ Commenting on this, Michael Persson, Director, Market Communications, ASC, said, ‘For years, our consumers have seen interpretations of the brand by some of the world’s most prominent artists and designers. With this new project they will also be able to listen to the brand: this is the voice of Absolut’.
Advertising experts felt that even 25 years after its launch, the Absolut advertising campaign was still going strong, innovatively, without changing the central theme. Even while creating music for Absolut Three Tracks, the bottle was used as the central theme. Aril Brikha, one of the artists who created a music track for Absolut Three Track said, ‘I had scanned the shape into a computer program that turns a picture into a tone—a futuristic way of including a picture without letting the listener know. I find it quite similar to previous Absolut projects where the bottle has been hidden in a picture.’ Industry observers as well as customers agreed on one issue: whatever the mode of expression—be it art, photography, technology, fashion or music—Absolut had until now stood for ‘brilliance in advertising’. Said an analyst, ‘We are surprised each year by the creativity and innovation of the brand. It is successful because it is contemporary. There is no end to the campaign.’
Questions:
  1. Discuss the role advertising plays in increasing brand awareness and brand loyalty among consumers, especially for products that have very subtle differentiable attributes. In the above context, examine the impact Absolute advertisements had on its target audience. Do you think the advertisements fulfilled their purpose?
  1. ‘The Absolute advertising campaign is successful because it is contemporary.’ How did TBWA maintain the ‘freshness’ of the Absolute campaign? Discuss with respect to the brand’s association with different media: art, fashion, technology and music.
  1. Even though Absolute ads have been depicted in different media, the central theme of the campaign has remained unchanged (the bottle and the two-word slogan) over the years. In light of the above statement, do you think that the campaign will manage to hold sway or lose in impact in the near future? Give reasons to support your arguments.
Even though Absolute ads have been depicted in different media, the central theme of the campaign has remained unchanged (the bottle and the two-word slogan) over the years. In light of the above statement, do you think that the campaign will manage to hold sway or lose in impact in the near future? Give reasons to support your arguments.

 

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IIBMS MIB CASE STUDY SOLUTIONS – Even if everyone else accepts it, I am not sure how I will cope. When projects fail it hits me pretty hard emotionally. Is it just that I am not cut out for this type of approach

Even if everyone else accepts it, I am not sure how I will cope. When projects fail it hits me pretty hard emotionally. Is it just that I am not cut out for this type of approach
Even if everyone else accepts it, I am not sure how I will cope. When projects fail it hits me pretty hard emotionally. Is it just that I am not cut out for this type of approach

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Entrepreneurship

 
Case IV -Provide advice to an entrepreneur about being more innovative
 
When Neil Franklin began offering round-the-clock telephone customer service in 1998, customers loved it. The offering fit the strategic direction Franklin had in mind for Dataworkforce, his Dallas-based telecommunications – engineer staffing agency, so he invested in a phone system to route after hours calls to his 10 employees’ home and mobile phones. Today, Franklin, 38, has nearly 50 employees and continues to explore ways to improve Dataworkforce’s service. Twenty-four-hour phone service has stayed, but other trials have not. One failure was developing individual Web sites for each customer. “We took it too far and spent $30,000 then abandoned it,” Franklin recalls. A try at globally extending the brand by advertising in major world cities was also dropped. “It worked pretty well,” Franklin says, “until you added up the cost.”
Franklin’s efforts are similar to an approach called “portfolios of initiatives” strategy. The idea, according to Lowell Bryan, a principal in McKinney & Co., the NYC consulting firm that developed it, is to always have a number of efforts underway to offer new products and services, attack new markets or otherwise implement strategies, and to actively manage these experiments so you don’t miss an opportunity or over commit to an unproven idea.
The portfolio of initiatives approach addresses a weakness of conventional business plans-that they make assumptions about uncertain future developments, such as market and technological trends, customer responses, sales and competitor reactions. Bryan compares the portfolio of initiatives strategy to the ship convoys used in World War II to get supplies across oceans. By assembling groups of military and transport vessels and sending them in a mutually supportive group, planners could rely on at least some reaching their destination. In the same way, entrepreneurs with a portfolio of initiatives can expect some of them to pan out.
Making a Plan
Three steps define the portfolio of initiatives approach. First, you search for initiatives in which you have or can readily acquire a familiarity advantage – meaning you know more than competitors about a business. You can gain familiarity advantage using low-cost pilot programs and experiments, or by partnering with more knowledgeable allies. Avoid business in which you can’t acquire a familiarity advantage, Bryan says.
After you identify familiarity-advantaged initiatives, began investing in them using a disciplined, dynamic management approach. Pay attention to how initiatives relate to each other. They should be diverse enough that the failure of one wont endanger the others, but should also all fit into your overall strategic direction. Investments, represented by product development efforts, pilot programs, market tests and the like, should start small and increase only as they prove themselves. Avoid over investing before initiatives have proved themselves. The third step is to pull the plug on initiatives that aren’t working out, and step up investment in others. A portfolio of initiatives will work in any size company. Franklin pursues 20 to 30 at any time, knowing 90 percent wont pan out, “The main idea is to keep those initiatives running,” he says. “If you don’t, you’re slowing down.”
Advice to an entrepreneur
An entrepreneur, who wants his firm to be more innovative, has read the above article and come to you for advice:
 
  1. This whole idea of experimentation seems to make sense, but all those little failures can add up, and if there enough of them, then this could lead to one big failure-the business going down the drain. How can I best get the advantages of experimentation in terms of innovation while also reduction the costs so that I don’t run the risk of losing my business?
  2. My employees, buyers, and suppliers like working for my company because we have a lot of wins. I am not sure how they will take it when our company begins to have a lot more failures (even if those failures are small)- it is a psychological thing. How can I handle this trade-off?
  3. Even if everyone else accepts it, I am not sure how I will cope. When projects fail it hits me pretty hard emotionally. Is it just that I am not cut out for this type of approach?
 

 

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IIBMS MIB CASE STUDY SOLUTIONS – Evaluate the position of Cipla and of GlaxoSmithKline in terms of utilitarianism, right, justice, and caring. Which of these two positions do you think is correct from an ethical point of view

Evaluate the position of Cipla and of GlaxoSmithKline in terms of utilitarianism, right, justice, and caring. Which of these two positions do you think is correct from an ethical point of view
Evaluate the position of Cipla and of GlaxoSmithKline in terms of utilitarianism, right, justice, and caring. Which of these two positions do you think is correct from an ethical point of view

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Business Ethics

Attempt All the case
 
Case – 1 Glaxo SmitbKine, Bristol – Myers Squibb, and AIDS in Africa
 
In 2004, the United Nations estimated that the previous year 5 million more people around the world had contracted the AIDS virus, 3 million had died, and a total of 40 million people were living with the infection. Seventy percent, or about 28 million of these, lived in sub – Saharan Africa, where the epidemic was at its worst. Sub – Saharan Africa consists of the 48 countries and 643 million people who reside south of the Saharan desert. In 16 of these countries, 10 percent are infected with the virus, in 6 other nation, 20 percent are infected. The UN predicted that in these 6 nations two – thirds of all 15 – year olds would eventually die of AIDS and in those where 10 percent were infected, half of all 15 – year – olds would die of AIDS.
        For the entire sub –Saharan region, the average level of infection among adults was 8.8 percent of Botswana’s population was infected, 34 percent of  Zimbabwe’s, 31 percent of Lesotho’s, and 33 percent of Swaziland’s. Family life had been destroyed by the deaths of hundreds of thousands of married couples, who left more than 11 million orphans to fend for themselves. Gangs and rebel armies forced thousands of orphans to join them. While crime and violence were rising, agriculture was in decline as orphaned farm children tried desperately to remember had to manage on their own. Labor productivity had been cut by 50 percent in the hardest – hit nations, school and hospital systems were decimated, and entire national economies were on the verge of collapse.
         With its huge burden of AIDS illnesses, African nation desperately needed medicines, both antibiotics to treat the many opportunistic diseases that strike AIDS victims and HIV antiretrovirals that can indefinitely prolong the lives of people with AIDS. Unfortunately, the people of sub – Saharan Africa could not afford the prices that the major pharmaceutical drug companies charged for their drugs. The major drug companies, for example, charged $10,000 to $ 15,000 for a year’s supply the antiretrovirals  they marketed in the United States. Yet the average per –person annual income in sub – Saharan Africa was $500. the AIDS crisis in sub – Saharan Africa posed a major moral problem for the drug companies of the developed world: How should they respond to the growing needs of this terribly destitute region of the world? These problems were especially urgent for the companies that held patents on several AIDS antiretrovirals, such as GlaxoSmithKline and Bristol- Myers Squibb.
         GlaxoSmithKline, a British pharmaceutical company founded in 1873, with 2003 revenues of $38.2 billion and profits of $8 billion, held the patents to five antiretrovirals it had created. Formed from the merger of three large drug companies (Glaxo, Burroughs Wellcome, and SmithKline Beecham), it was one of the world ‘s largest and most profitable companies. Bristol – Myers Squibb, an American pharmaceutical company founded in 1858, was also the result of mergers (between Squibb and Bristol – Myers). It had 2003 profit of $$3.1 billion on revenues of $20.8 billion ad had created and now held the patents to two antiretrovirls.
          Although AIDS was first noticed in the United State in 1981 when the CDC noted an alarming increase of a rare cancer among gay man, it is now known to have afflicted a Bantu male in 1959, and possibly jumped from monkeys to humans centuries earlier. In 1982, with 1,614 diagnosed cases in the United State, the disease was termed AIDS (for “acquired immune deficiency syndrome”), and the following year French scientists identified HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) as its cause.
          HIV is a virus that destroys the immune system that the body uses to fight off infections and diseases. If the immune system breaks down, the body is unable to fight off illnesses and becomes afflicted with various “opportunistic diseases “- infections and cancers. The virus, which can tack up to 10 year to break down a person’s immune system, is transmitted through the exchange of body fluids including blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk.
          The main modes of infection are through unprotected sex, intravenous drug use, and child birth. In 1987, Burroughs Wellcome (now part of GlaxoSmithKline) developed AZT, the first FDA-approved antiretroviral, that is, a drug that attacks the HIV virus itself. When wellcome priced AZT at $10,000 for a year’s supply, it was accused of price gouging, forcing a price reducing of 20 percent the following year. In 1991, Bristol- Myers Squibb developed didanosine, a new class of antiretroviral drug called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. In 1995, Roche developed saquinavir, a third new class of antiretroviral drug called a protease inhibitor, and the following year Roxane Laboratories announced nevirapine, another new class of antiretrovirals called nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors . By the middle 1990s, drug companies had developed four distinct classes of antiretrovirals, as several drugs that attacked the opportunistic diseases that afflict AIDS patients.
           In 1996, Dr. David Ho was honored for his discovery that by taking a combination- a “cocktail”- of three of than four classes of antiretroviral drags, it is possible to kill off virtually all of than HIV virus in a patient’s body, allowing the immune system to recover, and thereby effectively bringing the disease into remission. Costing upwards of $20,000 a year (the medicines had to be taken for the rest of the patient’s life), the new drug treatment enabled AIDS patients to once again live normal, healthy lives. By 1998, the large drug companies would have developed 12 different antiretroviral drugs that could be used in various combination to from the “cocktails” that could bring the disease into remission. The combination drug regimes, however, were complicated and had to be exactly adhered to. Several dozen pills had to be taken at various specific times during the day and night, every day, or the treatment would fail to work and the patient’s HIV virus could be come resistant to the drugs. If the patient then spread the disease to others, it would give rise to drug – resistant version of the disease. To ensure patients were carefully following the regimes, doctors or nurses carefully monitored their patients and made sure patients took the drugs on schedule. In 1998, as more U.S AIDS patients began the new combination drug treatment, the number of annual AIDS deaths dropped for the fist time in the United states.
           Globally, however, the situation was not improving. By 2000, according to the United Nations, there were approximately 5 million people who were being newly infected with AIDS each year, bringing the worldwide total to about 34,300,000, more than the entire population of Australia. Approximately 3,000,000 adults and children died of AIDS each year.
            The price of the new combination antiretroviral treatment limited the use of these drugs to the United States and other wealthy nation. Personal incomes in sub – Saharan Africa were too low to afford what the combination treatments cost at the point. Yet the countries of sub – Saharan Africa were emerging as the ones most desperately in need of the new treatment. Of the 5 million annual new cases of ADIS, 4 million -70 percent – were located in sub- Saharan countries.
            Numerous global health and human rights groups – such as Oxfam – urged the large drug companies to lower the prices of their drugs to levels that patients in poor developing nations could afford. By 2001, a combination regime of three antiretroviral AIDS drugs still cost about $10,000 a year. Although the formulas for making the antiretroviral drugs were often easy to obtain, few poor countries had the ability to manufacture the drugs, and in most nations that had the capacity to manufacture drugs the large drug companies of the developed world had obtained “patents” that gave them the exclusive right to manufacture those drugs in effect making the drug formulas the private property of the large drug companies.                         
            GlaxoSmithKline, Bristol – Myers Squibb, and the other big drug companies did not at this time want to lower their prices. First, they argued that it was better for poor countries to spend their limited resources on educational programs that might prevent new cases of AIDS than on expensive drugs that would merely extend life for the small number of patients that might receive the drugs. Second, they argued that the combination drug “cocktails” had to be administered by hospitals, clinics, doctors, or nurses who could monitor patients to make sure they were taking the drugs according to the prescribed regimes and to ensure that drug- resistant versions of the virus did not develop. But most AIDS patients in developing nations such as those in sub-Saharan Africa, the big drug companies argued, had limited access to medical personnel. Third, they argued, the development of new drugs was extremely expensive. The cost of the research, development, and testing required to bring a new drug to market, they claimed, was between $100 million. Besides the research involved, new drugs had to be tested in three phases:  Phase I trials to test for initial safety:  Phase II trials to test to make sure the drugs work: and  Phase III trials that were wide-scale tests on hundreds of people to determine safety, efficacy, and dosage. If the big drug companies were to recover what they had invested in developing the drugs they marketed, and were to retain the capacity to fund new drug development in the future, they argued, they had to maintain their high prices. If they started giving away their drugs, they would stop making new drugs. Finally, the drug companies of the developed nations feared that any drugs they discounted or gave away in the developing world would be smuggled back and sold in the United States and other developed nations.           
             Critics of the drug companies were not convinced by these arguments. Doctors Without Borders- a group of thousands of doctors who contributed their services to poor patients in developing nations around the world- said that although prevention programs were important, never- the less hundreds of thousands of lives-even millions-could be saved if drug companies lowered their antiretroviral and opportunistic disease drug prices to levels poor nations could afford. Moreover, a September 2003 report by the International AIDS Society stated that studies in Brazil, Haiti, Thailand, and South Africa showed that patients in remote rural areas adhered exactly to their drug regimes with the help of low-skilled paramedics and that the development of resistance was not a major problem. In fact, in the United States 50 percent of AIDS patients had developed drug resistance but only 6.6 percent of AIDS patients studied in developing nations had developed resistance. By now, some of the antiretroviral combination treatments were being combined into blister packs that were easier to administer and monitor.
              Other critics challenged the financial arguments of the drug companies. The cost estimates of new drug development used by the drug companies, they claimed, were inflated. For example, the figure of $500 million that drug companies often cited as the cost of developing a new drug was based on a study that  inflated its cost estimates by doubling the actual out-of-pocket costs companies invested in a drug to account for so-called “opportunity” costs (what the money would have earned if it had been invested in some other way). Moreover, these cost estimates assumed that the drug was being developed from scratch, when in fact most of the new drugs marketed by companies were based on research for other drugs already on the market or on research conducted by universities, government, and other publicly funded laboratories. Critics also questioned whether companies would be driven to stop investing in new drugs if they lowered the pries of their AIDS drugs. Since 1988 the average return on equity of drug companies averaged an unusually high 30 percent a year. Public Citizen, in a report entitled “2002 Drug Industry Profits,” noted that the ten biggest drug companies had total profits in 2002 of $35.9 billion, equal to more than half of the $69.6 billion in profits netted by all other companies in the Fortune 500 list of companies (the 500 largest U.S. companies). The ten big drug companies made 17 cents for every dollar of revenue, while the median earnings for other Fortune 500 companies was 3.1 cents per dollar of revenue; the return on assets of the big companies was 14.1 percent while the median for other companies was 2.3 percent. During the 1990s, the big drug companies in the Fortune 500 had a return on revenues that was 4 times the median of all other industries, and in 2002 it was at almost 6 times the median. Finally, the report noted, while the big drug companies spent only 14 percent of their revenues on drug research, they plowed 17 percent of their revenues into profit and 31 percent into marketing and administration. GlxoSmithKline itself had a 2003 profit margin of 21 percent, a return on equity of 122 percent, and a return on assets of 26 percent; Bristol-Myers Squibb had a profit margin of 19 percent, return on equity of 36 percent, and return on assets of 14 percent. These figures, critics argued, showed that it was well within the capacity of the big drug companies to lower prices for AIDS drug to the developing nations, even if a small portion of these drug ended up being smuggled back into the United States.
          GlaxoSmithkline, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and the other big drug companies, however, held their ground. Throughout the 1990s, they had lobbied hard to ensure that governments around the world in the medicines they had created. Before 1997, countries had different protection on so-called “intellectual property” (intellectual property consists of intangible property such as drug formulas, designs, plans, software, new inventions, etc.) some countries, like the United States, gave drug companies the exclusive right to keep anyone else from making their newly invented drug for a period of 15-20 year (this right was called a “patent”); other countries allowed companies fever year of protection for their patents, and many developing countries (where little research was done and where few things intellectual property as something that belonged to everyone and so something that should not be patented. Some countries, like India, offered patents that protected the process by which a drug was made but allowed others to make the same drug formula if they could figure out another process by which to make it.
           Arguing that research and development would stop if new invention such as drug were not protected by strong laws enforcing their patents, GlxoSmithKline, Bristol- Meyers Squibb, and the other major drug companies intensely lobbied the World Trade Organization (WTO) to require all WTO members to provide uniform patent protections on all intellectual property. Pressured by the governments of the large drug companies (especially the United States), the WTO in 1997 adopted an agreement known as TRIPS, shorthand for Trade-Related aspects of Intellectual Property rights. Under the TRIPS agreement, all countries that were members of the WTO were required to give patent holders (such as drug companies) exclusive right to make and market their inventions for a period of 20 yea in their countries. Developing countries like India, Brazil, Thailand, Singapore, China, and the sub – Saharan nation-were give until 2006 before they had to implement the TRIPS agreement. Also, I a “national emergency” WTO developing countries could use “compulsory licensing” to force a company that owned a patent on a drug to license another company in the same developing country to make a copy of that drug. And in a national emergency WTO developing countries could also import drug from foreign companies even if the patent holder had not licensed those foreign companies to make the drug. The new TRIPS agreement was a victory for companies in developed nation, which held patents for most of the world’s new inventions, while it restricted developing nation whose own laws had earlier allowed them to copy these inventions freely. The big drug companies were not willing in 2000 to surrender their hard-won 1997 victory at the WTO.
             Because the AIDS crisis was now a major global problem, the United Nation in 2000 launched the “Accelerated Access Program,” a program under which drug  companies were encouraged to offer poor countries price discounts on their AIDS drug. GlaxoSmithKline and then Bristol-Myers Squibb joined the program, but the price discounts they were willing to make were insufficient to make their drug affordable to sub-Saharan nations, and only a few people in few countries received AIDS drug under the program.
             Everything changed in February 2001 when Cipla, an Indian drug company, made a surprise announcement: It had copied three of the patented drug of three major pharmaceutical companies (Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlxoSmithKline, and Boehringer Ingelheim) and put them together into a combination antiretroviral course of therapy. Cipla said it would manufacture and sell a year’s supply of its copy of this antiretroviral “cocktail” for $350 to Doctors Without Borders. This was about 3 percent of the price the big drug companies who held the patents on the drugs were charging for the same drugs.
             GlxosmithKline and Bristol-Myers Squibb objected that Cipla was stealing their property since it was copying the drug that they had spent million to create and on which they still held the patent. Cipla responded that its activities were legal since the TRIPS agreement did not take effect in India until 2006, and Indian patent low allowed it to make the drugs so long as it used a new “process.” Moreover, Cipla claimed, since AIDS was a national emergency in many developing countries, particularly the sub-Saharan nations, the TRIPS agreement allowed sub-Saharan nation to import Cipla ‘s AIDS drugs. In August 2001, Ranbaxy, another Indian drug company, announced that it, too, would start selling a copy of the same antiretroviral combination drug Cipla was selling but would price it at $295 for a year’s supply. In April 2002, Aurobindo, also an Indian company, announced it would sell a combination drug for $209. Hetero, likewise an Indian company, announced in March 2003 that it would sell a combination drug at $201. By 2004, the Indian company were producing versions of the four main drug combination recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of AIDS. All four combination contained copies of one or two of GlaxoSmithKline’s patented antiretroviral drugs and two of the combination contained copies of Bristol-Meyer Squibb’s patented drugs.
              The CEO of GlaxoSmithKline branded the Indian companies as “pirates” and asserted that what they were doing was theft even if they broke no laws. Pressured by the discounted prices of the Indian companies and by world opinion, however, GlaxoSmithKline and Bristol-Myers Squibb now decided to further discount the AIDS drugs they owned. They did not, however, lower their prices down to the levels of the Indian companies; their lowest discounted prices in 2001 yielded a price of $931 for 1-year supply of the combination of AIDS drugs Cipla was selling for $350. In 2002 and 2003, new discounts brought the combination down to $727, still too high for most sub-Saharan AIDS victims and their government.
               With little to impede its progress, the AIDS epidemic continued in 2994. Swaziland announced in 2003 that 38.6 percent of its adult population was now infected with AIDS. THE United Nation estimated that every day 14,000 people were newly infected with AIDS. The World Health Organization announced that only 300,000 people in developing countries were receiving antiretroviral drugs, and of the 4.1 million people who were infected in sub-Saharan Africa only about 50,000 had access to the drugs. The World Health Organization announced in 2003 that it would try to collect from governments the funds needed to bring antiretrovirals to at least 3 million people by the end of 2005.
Questions
  1. Explain, in light of their theories, what Locke, Smith, Ricardo, and Marx would probably say about the events in this case.
  1. Explain which view of property-Locke’s or Marx’s- lies behind the positions of the drug companies GlaxoSmithKline and Bristol-Myers Squibb and of the Indian companies such as Cipla. Which of the two group-GlaxoSmithKline and Bristol-Myers Squibb on the one hand, and the Indian companies on the other –do you think holds the correct view of property in this case? Explain your answer.
  1. Evaluate the position of Cipla and of GlaxoSmithKline in terms of utilitarianism, right, justice, and caring. Which of these two positions do you think is correct from an ethical point of view?
Evaluate the position of Cipla and of GlaxoSmithKline in terms of utilitarianism, right, justice, and caring. Which of these two positions do you think is correct from an ethical point of view

 

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IIBMS EMBA CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS – Evaluate the formulation of the merger between Daimler and Chrysler. Discuss the strategic fit and the different product lines.

Evaluate the formulation of the merger between Daimler and Chrysler. Discuss the strategic fit and the different product lines. 
Evaluate the formulation of the merger between Daimler and Chrysler. Discuss the strategic fit and the different product lines. 

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Principles of Management

 
Case No. :3
The Daimler-Chrysler Merger: A New World Order?
       In May 1998, Daimler-Benz, the biggest industrial firm in Europe and Chrysler, the third largest carmaker in the US merged. The carefully planned merger seemed to be a “strategic fit.’’ Chrysler with its lower-priced cars, light trucks, pickups, and its successful minivans appeared to complement Daimler’s luxury cars, commercial vehicles, and sport utilities. There was little product-line overlap with the exception of the Chrysler’s Jeep and Daimler’s Mercedes M-Class sport utility vehicles.  The merger followed a trend of other consolidations. General Motors owns 50 percent of Swedish Saab AB and has subsidiaries Opel in Germany and Vaxuhall in England. Ford acquired British Jaguar and Aston Martin. The German carmaker BMW acquired British Rover, and Rolls Royce successfully sold its interests to Volkswagen and BMW. On the other hand, the attempted merger of Volvo and Renault failed and Ford later acquired Volvo. The Daimler-Chrysler cross-cultural merger has the advantage of both CEO’s having international experience and knowledge of both German and American cultures. Chrysler’s Robert Eaton had experience in restyling Opel cars in GM’s European operation. Mr. Lutz, the co-chair at Chrysler, speaks fluent German, English, French, and Italian, and has past work experience with BMW, GM, and Ford. Daimler’s CEO Juergen Schrempp worked in the US with Euclid Inc. and has experience in South Africa giving him a global perspective.
Background
Lee lacocca, the colorful Chrysler Chairman left Ford for Chrysler because of a clash with Henry  Ford II in 1978. He is credited with saving Chrysler from bankruptcy in 1979/1980, when he negotiated a loan guaranty from the US government. Iacocca also led Chrysler’s CEO who negotiated the 1998 merger with Daimler, replaced Iacocca in 1992.       At the time of the merger, Daimler was selling fewer vehicles than Chrysler, but had higher revenues. Daimler’s  300,000 employees worldwide produced 715,000 cars and 417,000 trucks and commercial vehicles in 1997. The company  was also in the business of airplanes, trains, and helicopters, and two thirds of its revenue came from outside Germany.    So, why would Daimler in Stuttgart go to Chrysler in Detroit? The companies had complementary product lines and Chrysler saw the merger as an opportunity to over come some of the European trade barriers; but the primary reasons for mergers in the auto industry are technology (high fixed costs) and overcapacity. Only those companies with economies of scale can survive. Mr. Park, the President of Hyundai Motor Company stated that the production lines in Korea operate at about 50 percent of capacity in 1998. The auto industry could produce about 1/3 more cars. It has been predicted that only six or seven major carmakers will be able to survive in the next century. This makes merger more of a competitive necessity than a competitive or strategic advantage.
Daimler + Chrysler = New Car Company
In the late 1980s and the early 1990s, the Japanese made great strides in the auto industry through efficient production and high quality. Now the German carmaker changes the car industry with the Daimler-Chrysler merger in which the former having 53 percent ownership and the latter the rest. The new car company is now the fifth largest in the world and could become the volume producer in the whole product line range.
       The respective strengths are that Daimler is known for its luxury cars and its innovation in small cars (A-Class, Smart Car). Chrysler, on the other hand, has an average profit per vehicle that is the highest among the Big 3 (GM, Ford, and Chrysler) in Detroit, thanks to the high margins on minivans and Jeeps. Chrysler is also known for its highly skilled management and efficient production. Low cost and simplicity (e.g. Neon model) are other hallmarks of Chrysler.
 
Juergen Schrempp – A Shake-Up Artist?
Besides arranging for the Daimler-Chrysler merger, Juergen Schrempp initiated many changes in the German operation. When he took office, he felt that the company was without purpose and direction. Consequently, he divested AEF and reduced the number of businesses from 35 to 23. His emphasis on shareholder value is counter to traditional German business culture. Schrempp models his  managerial style after General Electric CEO Jack Welch. Welch believes the GE should be No. 1 or No. 2 (or have a plan aimed at getting there) in a given market or business, or the company should get out of this market.
       Yet, Schrempp faces many challenges. In the next century, Mercedes will face tough competition from the Japanese Lexus, infinity, and Acura as well as BMW and Ford’s Jagur. Germany’s labor cost is the highest in the world and it requires 60 to 80 hours to build a Mercedes while to takes only 20 labor hours to build a Lexus. Schrempp needs to cut costs and improve productivity in order to survive. To remain competitive in a global market with fewer, but larger automakers, Daimler-Chrysler has to grow and introduce new models. At the Frankfurt Auto Show in 1999, the company announced that it would invest $48 billion to introduce 64 new models in the next five years.
Strategy Implementation: The Achilles’
Heed of the Merger?
The formulation of the merger strategy was carefully planned. The global perspectives of Schrempp and Eaton as well as the product line indicate a fit. Yet, implementing a well conceived strategy provides its own challenges. Some Chrysler designers and mangers saw the merger more as a takeover by Daimler, and consequently left the firm to join GM and Ford. Mr. Eaton, who is the American moral booster, will soon retire. While there is a mutual understanding of the country and corporate culture on the highest organizational level, incorporating the different cultures and managerial styles on lower levels may be more difficult.
       German top managers may rely on the 50 page report for discussion and decision making. Americans prefer one-to-one communication. Below the board level, subordinates typically research an issue and present it to their German boss, who usually accepts the recommendation. American managers frequently accept the report and file it away, frustrating German subordinates. Also, Chrysler designers are frustrated with not being involved in the design of Mercedes cars. Although there are at this time two headquarters (Detroit and Stuttgart), a top manager predicted that in the near future there would be only one – in Germany.  Both the Americans and Germans can learn from each other. Germans need to write shorter reports, be more flexible, reduce bureaucracy, and speed up managerial decision making. American mangers, on the other hand, hope to learn from the Germans. As one Chrysler employee said: “One of the real benefits to us is instilling some discipline that we know we needed but weren’t able to inflict on ourselves.’’
 
Questions :
 
  1. Evaluate the formulation of the merger between Daimler and       Chrysler. Discuss the strategic fit and the different product lines.
 
  1. Assess the international perspectives of Eaton and Schrempp.
 
  1. What are the difficulties in merging the organizational cultures of the two companies?
 
  1. What is the probability of success of failure of the merger? What other mergers do you foresee in the car industry?
Evaluate the formulation of the merger between Daimler and Chrysler. Discuss the strategic fit and the different product lines.

 

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IIBMS DMS CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS – Evaluate Marquette’s method of designing the sales territories – strengths and weaknesses. Should the company reduce the size of its territories

Evaluate Marquette’s method of designing the sales territories – strengths and weaknesses. Should the company reduce the size of its territories
Evaluate Marquette’s method of designing the sales territories – strengths and weaknesses. Should the company reduce the size of its territories

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Sales Management

 
CASE 3: Marquette Frozen Foods Company
 
The Marquette Frozen Foods Company manufactured a wide line of frozen foods sold directly to all types of food stores. The company’s 100 salespeople worked out of thirty-five district sales offices located throughout the United States. Annual sales were nearly $50 million. Although the sales picture was quite favorable, certain recent developments indicated a possible need for redesign of sales territories.
            Sales territories were established using population as the base and were composed of one or more counties, depending on each county’s population. The aim was to assign each salesperson to a territory containing about 1 percent of the country’s total population. Since the total population was approximately 205 million (exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii), an attempt was made to assign each person a territory consisting of about 2,050,000 people. Population statistics were obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census and were modified according to local area statistics.
            The method of territory design was illustrated by the Northeast I sales territory, including Maine, New Hampshire, and part of Massachusetts. The Northeast I territory included the following Maine counties, along with their populations;  Aroostook, 95,000; Piscataquis,  16,000;  Penobscot,  125,000;  Androscoggin,  91,000;  Cumberland,  193,000;  Franklin,  22,000;  Hancock,  35,000;  Kennebec,  95,000; Knox,  29,000;  Lincoln,  21,000;  Oxford,  43,000;  Sagadahoc,  23,000;  Somerset, 41,000; Waldo, 23,000;  Washington, 30,000; and York, 112,000. Maine population: 994,000.
            The following New Hampshire counties and their population were included:  Belknap,  32,000;  Carroll,  19,000; Cheshire,  52,000; Coos,  34,000; Grafton,  55,000;  Hillsborough,  224,000; Merrimack,  81,000;  Rockingham,  139,000; Stratford,  70,000;  and Sullivan,  31,000. New Hampshire population: 737,000.
            Finally, the following Massachusetts towns were included to increase the sales territory population to the desired figure (the first six towns listed were in Essex County, while the last two were in Middlesex County); Amesbury, 13,000;  Newburyport,  18,000;  Haverhill,  46,000;  Lawrence, 67,000;  Salem,  41,000;  Marblehead, 21,000;  Tewksbury, 23,000; and Lowell,  95,000.  Massachusetts population: 321,000. Total population in Maine, New Hampshire, and parts of Essex and Middlesex counties in Massachusetts: 2,055,000.
            Analyses of population statistics were made every three years. When warranted by population changes, sales territories were redesigned: however, most changes were minor. The company supplied each salesperson with a detailed map showing the counties in his or her territory, the cities and towns, population, and the exact territorial assignments and to ensure a salesperson’s exclusive rights to a given territory.
            The Marquette sales manager had proposed and received acceptance of this method of determining sales territories several years ago. He favored this procedure because it guaranteed equal territories and similar sales opportunities for all company sales personnel and therefore eliminated an important cause for poor morale. With total population divided evenly, it was easy to compare relative performances of the sales force. Total population divided was an accurate estimate of potential demand, according to the sales manager, because everyone was a potential customer for frozen foods. In addition, he said that the simplicity and economy of this approach made it even more desirable.
            Careful analysis of a number of call reports, however, confirmed the sales manager’s suspicions that many  salespeople were “skimming the cream” or concentrating on the larger and easier-to-sell accounts, neglecting altogether a substantial number of prospects. Consequently, he concluded that territorial coverage was unsatisfactory. He believed that this situation could be remedied by reducing the size of the territories, permitting more intensive coverage.
            The sales managers was aware that there were many reasons why reduction of the size of sales territories was difficult to implement. First, the sales personnel would feel that something was being taken away from them; in some cases they would lose accounts they had cultivated over a long period. The result was a possible morale problem. Second, high costs were involved in redesigning sales territories. Third, there would be a need to hire additional salespeople to cover the new sales territories. Fourth, someone would have to convince the sales force that the changes were in the best interests of the sales staff, the company, and the customers. It would be essential to secure the sales force’s acceptance of the new plan.
            Since substantial problems were associated with reducing the sizes of the sales territories, the Marquette sales manager was still undecided whether to redesign the present sales territories.
Case 3 Questions: Evaluate Marquette’s method of designing the sales territories – strengths and weaknesses. Should the company reduce the size of its territories?

 

Evaluate Marquette’s method of designing the sales territories – strengths and weaknesses. Should the company reduce the size of its territories

 

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IIBMS DMS CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS – Evaluate Holden’s recruiting program, suggesting whether or not the company should have continued in college recruiting of sales engineers.

During the 1990s, the AIDS epidemic posed peculiarly acute dilemmas for health workers. After routinely removing an intravenous system, drawing blood, or delivering an injection to an AIDS patient
During the 1990s, the AIDS epidemic posed peculiarly acute dilemmas for health workers. After routinely removing an intravenous system, drawing blood, or delivering an injection to an AIDS patient

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Sales Management

CASE  2: -Holden Electrical Supplies Company
Holden Electrical Supplies Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, manufactured a wide line of electrical equipment used in both home and industry. The sales force called on both electrical wholesalers and industrial buyers with the greater part of their efforts concentrated on industry buyers. The industrial products required considerable technical expertise upon the part of salespeople. Sales offices situated in twenty cities spread over the country had two hundred sales personnel operating out of them. In the past eight years sales volume increased by more than 50 percent, to a level of nearly $150,000,000. The fast rise in sales volume and the accompanying plant expansion created a problem in that more sales personnel were needed to keep up with the new accounts and to make sure the additional plant capacity was used profitably.
            In addition, Holden’s sales recruiting problem was compounded by a noticeable decline in the number of college seniors wanting a selling career. Holden recruiters had observed this at colleges and universities where they went searching for prospective salespeople. Another indication of the increased difficulty in attracting good young people into selling was aggressive recruiting by more and more companies. These factors combined to make the personnel recruiting problem serious for Holden; consequently, management ordered an evaluation of recruiting methods.
             Virtually all Holden salespeople were recruited from twenty-five engineering colleges by district sales managers. Typically, Holden recruiters screened two hundred college seniors to hire ten qualified sales engineers. It was estimated to cost Holden $600 to recruit a candidate. Management believed the college recruiting program was deficient in light of the high cost and the fact that only 5 percent of the candidates interviewed accepted employment with Holden.
            Evaluation of the college recruiting program began with the College Recruiting Division of the company asking district sales managers for their appraisals. Some district managers felt that Holden should discontinue college recruiting for various reasons, including the time required for recruiting, the intense competition, and the candidates’ lack of experience. Other district managers, however, felt the program should continue with a few modifications, such as recruiting college juniors for the summer employment more or less on a trial basis, concentrating on fewer schools, and getting on friendly terms with placement directors and professors.
            Holden’s general sales managers favored abandoning the college recruiting program and believed the company should adopt an active recruiting program utilizing other sources. He reasoned that, while engineering graduates had a fine technical background, their lack of maturity, inability to cope with business-type problems, and their lack of experience precluded an effective contribution to the Holden selling operation.
            The general sales managers felt that the two hundred sales engineers currently working for Holden were an excellent source of new recruits. They knew the requirements for selling the Holden line and were in continual contact with other salespeople. By enlisting the support of the sales force, the general manager foresaw an end to Holden’s difficulty in obtaining sales engineers.
            The president preferred internal recruiting from the nonselling divisions, such as engineering, design, and manufacturing. He claimed that their familiarity with Holden and their proven abilities were important indicators of potential success as sales engineers.
            A complete analysis of Holden’s entire personnel recruiting program was in order, and, regardless of the approach finally decided upon, it was paramount that the company have a continuous program to attract satisfactory people to the sales organization.
Case 2 Questions:
 
Evaluate Holden’s recruiting program, suggesting whether or not the company should have continued in college recruiting of sales engineers.
Evaluate Holden’s recruiting program, suggesting whether or not the company should have continued in college recruiting of sales engineers.

 

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IIBMS MMS CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS – Entrepreneurship – What are the disadvantages and how can they be minimized

Entrepreneurship – What are the disadvantages and how can they be minimized
Entrepreneurship – What are the disadvantages and how can they be minimized

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Entrepreneurship

 
Case III – Provide advice to an entrepreneur about small business investment companies
It started out as a straightforward consulting project for Mahendra Vora and research partner Sundar Kadaya. They were analyzing software trends and perusing market research studies to assess the size of various software markets. But after spending 40 hours looking for information that should have taken 10 minutes to access, the pair concluded that more advanced tools were needed to search the internet and databases of public information. Within months, they launched Intelliseek Inc., providing software to capture, track and analyze information for use in strategic planning, market research, product development and brand marketing. Vora, 39, was no stranger to start-ups. By the time he co-founded Intelliseek in 1997, he already had three business launches under his belt. He sold all three to Fortune 500 firms, providing capital for Intelliseek. His initial investment of a few million dollars supported operations the first couple of years and through two major product launches.
By 1999, the Cincinnati Company was laying the groundwork for its first round of venture capital.Vora had had two years to contemplate his dream investor. Foremost, size did matter: The venture capitalist should have the wherewithal for ongoing financing, but not be so large that it shunned all but elaborate business models. Finding an investor with a broad network of investing partners also was important to the $10million company. “If you become wildly successful and plan to raise $50 million someday, then [the investor] should have access to the big investors. The network is also important because it can [introduce] you to customers,” says Vora, whose clients include CBS, Ford Motor Co. and Nokia. Finally, Vora was looking for operational experience. “A lot of VCs are phenomenal in advising you about what to do, but they’ve never done it themselves,” he observes. Vora ultimately found his venture match in Cincinnati-based River Cities Capital Funds, a small business investment company. While River Cities was not large, it was well-connected and managed by industry veterans with extensive professional experience.
Starting Small
Licensed and regulated by the SBA, SBICs are generally organized and operated like any other venture capital fund. But unlike traditional funds, SBICs use their own capital and long-term loans to small companies. On the whole, SBICs tend to be more risk-tolerant than banks or traditional venture capitalists….Inteliseek’s SBIC banker removed barriers to reaching larger, mainstream investors. Led by river cities capital funds, the initial $6 million investment included capital from the venture arm of Nokia; later investors included Ford Motor Co. and General Atlantic Partners LLC. “once you get a VC like River Cities, it is much easier to get access to bigger VCs,” says Vora. “They can go to VCs and say ‘One of our companies is doing so well, we’re going to put in more money, and you guys should come in’.”
Down But Not Out
SBICs invested roughly $2.8 billion in about 2,100 companies in the 12-month period ending September 30, 2002 down from $4.6 billion invested in 2,254 companies in the same period one year earlier. Like mainstream investors, they have had to adjust to deteriorating economic conditions.  “Valuations have come down on deals, and due diligence periods have increased,” says Patrick Hamner, vice resident of Capital Southwest Corp., a Dallas-based SBIC. “People are being far more discriminating in how they invest their capital.”
“The bar has been raised even more for small businesses trying to get capital,” he continues. “As opposed to the overall venture industry, which has had a very marked decline in financing activity, SBICs are down but still active.”
Nor has quality been an overriding concern, even as SBICs engage in riskier deals than their mainstream counterparts. “Part of what has happened with the bursting of the bubble is that the ideas being proposed are based on more substantive models,” says Edwin Robinson, managing director of River Cities Capital Funds. “A lot of the excess is being wrung out the system.” While the venture shakeup has impacted conventional the way some SBICs operate. “During the bubble years, there was probably more of an inclination to overfund,” says NASBICs Mercer. “I don’t mean in  the sense that money might not be justified, but to make the unconditional investment. I suspect that what you’re seeing now is a lot more investing on a milestone basis.” For instance, a company that requires $3 million over three years is likely to receive $1 million upfront, getting the rest after meeting revenue and growth targets. Fewer venture dollars, coupled with the banking industry’s reticence to lend to small businesses, has contributed to an overall capital shortage, adds Mercer. “Banks that had been out a little bit further on the risk curve than they probably normally do,” he says. “The banks’ own proclivity and the regulators kind of forced a pullback, so there has been a tremendous pullback in bank credit availability even for small businesses that have had long time banking relationships.”
The SBIC program, meanwhile, is attracting mainstream investors having difficulty raising capital for venture-backed investments. The increased interest bodes well for the small firms that SBICs target: companies with a net worth of less than $18 million and average after-tax earning of less than $6 million for the past two years.
Advice to an entrepreneur
An entrepreneur, who is an owner manager of a small business and looking to raise $4,00,000, has read the above article and comes to you for advice:
  1. What are the advantages of going to an SBIC over and above a business angle or venture capitalist?
  2. What are the disadvantages and how can they be minimized?

 

Welcome to Case Study Help

 
We at Case Study offer all types of online academic assistance, be it homework help, coursework help, case study help, Assignment help, Project Reports, Thesis, Research paper writing help.
And for each service, each subject and each topic, we dedicate an expert writer who has knowledge in that specific field of study. Experience impeccable academic writing service like never before.
Our experts understand that the time of the customers is very precious. The professors of universities and colleges are very rigorous about the submission deadlines of projects or assignments. Hence, the key objective of our case study help service is to deliver the assignments to the customers even before the promised submission deadlines.
We keep the quality measures for all papers which mean we will provide best essays. Our editing services are also excellent. Before submitting any essays, we will check whether the papers writer well or not. The high standards of academic writing will exceed your expectations. With our quality service, we have satisfied more number of people across the world and also work with different universities in Australia, UK, USA, Dubai, Oman, etc.
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IIBMS MBA CASE STUDY SOLUTIONS,
IIBMS EMBA CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS,
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IIBMS EMBA CASE STUDY SOLUTIONS – Entrepreneurship – What are the advantages of going to an SBIC over and above a business angle or venture capitalist

Entrepreneurship – What are the advantages of going to an SBIC over and above a business angle or venture capitalist
Entrepreneurship – What are the advantages of going to an SBIC over and above a business angle or venture capitalist

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Entrepreneurship

 
Case III – Provide advice to an entrepreneur about small business investment companies
It started out as a straightforward consulting project for Mahendra Vora and research partner Sundar Kadaya. They were analyzing software trends and perusing market research studies to assess the size of various software markets. But after spending 40 hours looking for information that should have taken 10 minutes to access, the pair concluded that more advanced tools were needed to search the internet and databases of public information. Within months, they launched Intelliseek Inc., providing software to capture, track and analyze information for use in strategic planning, market research, product development and brand marketing. Vora, 39, was no stranger to start-ups. By the time he co-founded Intelliseek in 1997, he already had three business launches under his belt. He sold all three to Fortune 500 firms, providing capital for Intelliseek. His initial investment of a few million dollars supported operations the first couple of years and through two major product launches.
By 1999, the Cincinnati Company was laying the groundwork for its first round of venture capital.Vora had had two years to contemplate his dream investor. Foremost, size did matter: The venture capitalist should have the wherewithal for ongoing financing, but not be so large that it shunned all but elaborate business models. Finding an investor with a broad network of investing partners also was important to the $10million company. “If you become wildly successful and plan to raise $50 million someday, then [the investor] should have access to the big investors. The network is also important because it can [introduce] you to customers,” says Vora, whose clients include CBS, Ford Motor Co. and Nokia. Finally, Vora was looking for operational experience. “A lot of VCs are phenomenal in advising you about what to do, but they’ve never done it themselves,” he observes. Vora ultimately found his venture match in Cincinnati-based River Cities Capital Funds, a small business investment company. While River Cities was not large, it was well-connected and managed by industry veterans with extensive professional experience.
Starting Small
Licensed and regulated by the SBA, SBICs are generally organized and operated like any other venture capital fund. But unlike traditional funds, SBICs use their own capital and long-term loans to small companies. On the whole, SBICs tend to be more risk-tolerant than banks or traditional venture capitalists….Inteliseek’s SBIC banker removed barriers to reaching larger, mainstream investors. Led by river cities capital funds, the initial $6 million investment included capital from the venture arm of Nokia; later investors included Ford Motor Co. and General Atlantic Partners LLC. “once you get a VC like River Cities, it is much easier to get access to bigger VCs,” says Vora. “They can go to VCs and say ‘One of our companies is doing so well, we’re going to put in more money, and you guys should come in’.”
Down But Not Out
SBICs invested roughly $2.8 billion in about 2,100 companies in the 12-month period ending September 30, 2002 down from $4.6 billion invested in 2,254 companies in the same period one year earlier. Like mainstream investors, they have had to adjust to deteriorating economic conditions.  “Valuations have come down on deals, and due diligence periods have increased,” says Patrick Hamner, vice resident of Capital Southwest Corp., a Dallas-based SBIC. “People are being far more discriminating in how they invest their capital.”
“The bar has been raised even more for small businesses trying to get capital,” he continues. “As opposed to the overall venture industry, which has had a very marked decline in financing activity, SBICs are down but still active.”
Nor has quality been an overriding concern, even as SBICs engage in riskier deals than their mainstream counterparts. “Part of what has happened with the bursting of the bubble is that the ideas being proposed are based on more substantive models,” says Edwin Robinson, managing director of River Cities Capital Funds. “A lot of the excess is being wrung out the system.” While the venture shakeup has impacted conventional the way some SBICs operate. “During the bubble years, there was probably more of an inclination to overfund,” says NASBICs Mercer. “I don’t mean in  the sense that money might not be justified, but to make the unconditional investment. I suspect that what you’re seeing now is a lot more investing on a milestone basis.” For instance, a company that requires $3 million over three years is likely to receive $1 million upfront, getting the rest after meeting revenue and growth targets. Fewer venture dollars, coupled with the banking industry’s reticence to lend to small businesses, has contributed to an overall capital shortage, adds Mercer. “Banks that had been out a little bit further on the risk curve than they probably normally do,” he says. “The banks’ own proclivity and the regulators kind of forced a pullback, so there has been a tremendous pullback in bank credit availability even for small businesses that have had long time banking relationships.”
The SBIC program, meanwhile, is attracting mainstream investors having difficulty raising capital for venture-backed investments. The increased interest bodes well for the small firms that SBICs target: companies with a net worth of less than $18 million and average after-tax earning of less than $6 million for the past two years.
Advice to an entrepreneur
An entrepreneur, who is an owner manager of a small business and looking to raise $4,00,000, has read the above article and comes to you for advice:
  1. What are the advantages of going to an SBIC over and above a business angle or venture capitalist?
  2. What are the disadvantages and how can they be minimized?
Entrepreneurship – What are the advantages of going to an SBIC over and above a business angle or venture capitalist

 

Welcome to Case Study Help

 
We at Case Study offer all types of online academic assistance, be it homework help, coursework help, case study help, Assignment help, Project Reports, Thesis, Research paper writing help.
And for each service, each subject and each topic, we dedicate an expert writer who has knowledge in that specific field of study. Experience impeccable academic writing service like never before.
Our experts understand that the time of the customers is very precious. The professors of universities and colleges are very rigorous about the submission deadlines of projects or assignments. Hence, the key objective of our case study help service is to deliver the assignments to the customers even before the promised submission deadlines.
We keep the quality measures for all papers which mean we will provide best essays. Our editing services are also excellent. Before submitting any essays, we will check whether the papers writer well or not. The high standards of academic writing will exceed your expectations. With our quality service, we have satisfied more number of people across the world and also work with different universities in Australia, UK, USA, Dubai, Oman, etc.
IIBMS MBA CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS,
IIBMS MBA CASE STUDY SOLUTIONS,
IIBMS EMBA CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS,
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IIBMS MMS CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS

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IIBMS MIB CASE STUDY SOLUTIONS – Emily, who had the reputation of being an excellent worker, was a machine operator in a furniture manufacturing plant that had been growing at a rate of between 15 percent and 20 percent each year for the past decade.

Emily, who had the reputation of being an excellent worker, was a machine operator in a furniture manufacturing plant that had been growing at a rate of between 15 percent
Emily, who had the reputation of being an excellent worker, was a machine operator in a furniture manufacturing plant that had been growing at a rate of between 15 percent

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Organizational Behavior

 
CASE: V    The Excellent Employee
 
Emily, who had the reputation of being an excellent worker, was a machine operator in a furniture manufacturing plant that had been growing at a rate of between 15 percent and 20 percent each year for the past decade. New additions were built onto the plant, new plants opened in the region, workers hired, new product lines developed – lots of expansion – but with no significant change in overall approaches to operations, plant layout, ways of managing workers, or design processes. Plant operations as well as organizational culture were rooted in traditional Western management practices and logic, based largely on the notion of mass production and economies of scale. Over the past four years the company had grown in number and variety of products and in market penetration; however, profitability was flattening and showing signs of decline. As a result, managers were beginning to focus on production operations (internal focus) rather than mainly focusing on new market strategies, new products, and new market segments (external focus) in developing their strategic plans. They hoped to reduce manufacturing costs, improving consistency of quality and ability to meet delivery times better while decreasing inventory and increasing flexibility. One of several new programs initiated by managers in this effort to improve flexibility and lower costs was to get workers cross-trained. However, when a representative from Human Resources explained this program to Emily’s supervisor, Jim, he reluctantly agreed to cross-train most of his workers, but not Emily. Jim explained to the Human Resources person that Emily worked on a machine that was very complex and not easy to effectively operate. She had to “babysit” it much of the time. He had tried to train many workers on it, but Emily was the only person who could consistently get products through the machine that were within specifications and still meet production schedules. When anyone else tried to operate the machine, which performed a key function in the manufacturing process, it ended up either being a big bottleneck or producing excessive waste, which create a lot of trouble for Jim. Jim went on to explain that Emily knew this sophisticated and complicated machine inside and out; she had been running it for five years. She liked the challenge, and she said it made the day go by faster, too. She was meticulous in her work-a skilled employee who really cared about the quality of her work. Jim told the HR person that he wished all of his workers were like Emily. In spite of difficulty of running this machine, Emily could run it so well that product piled up at the next workstation in the production process, which couldn’t keep up with her!
Jim was adamant about keeping Emily on this machine and not cross-training her. The HR was frustrated. He could see Jim’s point, but he had to follow executive orders: “Get these people cross-trained.”
Around the same time a University student was doing a field study in the section of the plant where Emily worked, and Emily was one of the workers he interviewed. Emily told the student that in spite of the fact that the plant had some problems with employee morale and excessive employee turn-over, she really liked working there. She liked the piece-rate pay system and hoped she did not have to participate in the recent “program of the month,” which was having operators learn each other’s jobs. She told the student that it would just create more waste if they tried to have other employees run her machine. She told him that other employees had tried to learn how to operate her machine but couldn’t do it as well as she could.
Emily seemed to like the student and began to open up to him. She told him that her machine really didn’t need to be so difficult and touchy to operate: With a couple of minor design changes in the machine and better maintenance, virtually anyone could run it. She had tried to explain this to her supervisor a couple of years ago, but he just told her to “do her work and leave operations to the manufacturing engineers.” She also said that if workers upstream in the process would spend a little more time and care to keep the raw material in slightly tighter specifications, it would go through her machine much more easily; but they were too focused on speed and making more piece-rate pay. She expressed a lack of respect for the managers who couldn’t see this and even joked about how “managers didn’t know anything.”
Question:

  1. Identify the sources of resistance to change in this case.
  2. Discuss whether this resistance is justified or could be overcome.
  3. Recommend ways to minimize resistance to change in this incident or in future incidents.
Emily, who had the reputation of being an excellent worker, was a machine operator in a furniture manufacturing plant that had been growing at a rate of between 15 percent

 

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We at Case Study offer all types of online academic assistance, be it homework help, coursework help, case study help, Assignment help, Project Reports, Thesis, Research paper writing help.
And for each service, each subject and each topic, we dedicate an expert writer who has knowledge in that specific field of study. Experience impeccable academic writing service like never before.
Our experts understand that the time of the customers is very precious. The professors of universities and colleges are very rigorous about the submission deadlines of projects or assignments. Hence, the key objective of our case study help service is to deliver the assignments to the customers even before the promised submission deadlines.
We keep the quality measures for all papers which mean we will provide best essays. Our editing services are also excellent. Before submitting any essays, we will check whether the papers writer well or not. The high standards of academic writing will exceed your expectations. With our quality service, we have satisfied more number of people across the world and also work with different universities in Australia, UK, USA, Dubai, Oman, etc.
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IIBMS MBA CASE STUDY SOLUTIONS,
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IIBMS DMS CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS – Effective HR Training & Development Management – Which theory of motivation do use to motivate the bus crew why

Effective HR Training & Development Management – Which theory of motivation do use to motivate the bus crew why
Effective HR Training & Development Management – Which theory of motivation do use to motivate the bus crew why

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Effective HR Training & Development Management

 

THE RESENTFUL EMPLOYEE
 
 
It was a bitterly cold night, and even at the far end of the bus the east wind that raved along the street cut like a knife.  The bus stopped, and two women and a man got in together and filled the vacant places.  The younger woman was dressed in sealskin, and carried one of those little Pekinese dogs that women in sealskin like to carry in their laps.  The conductor came and took the fare.  Then his eye rested with cold malice on the beady-eyed toy dog.  I saw trouble brewing.  This was the opportunity for which he had been waiting, and he intended to make the most of it.  I had marked him as the type of what Mr. Wells has called the Resentful Employee, the man with a general, vague grievance against everything, and in particular, a grievance against passengers who came and sat in his bus while he shivered at the door.
            “ You must take that dog out”, he said with sour venom.
            “I shall certainly do nothing of the kind.  You can take my name and address,” said the women, who had evidently expected the challenge and knew the reply.
            “You must take the dog out-that is my order.”
            “ I won’t go on the top in such weather.  It would kill me,” said the woman.
            “Certainly not,” said her lady companion.  “ You have got a cough as it is.”
            “ It is nonsense”, said her male companion.
            The conductor pulled the bell and the bus stopped.
            “ This bus does not go on until that dog is brought out.”  And he stepped on the pavement and waited.  It was his moment of triumph.  He had the law on his side and a bus-full of angry people under his thumb.  His embittered soul was having a real holiday.
            The storm inside rose high. “Shameful”, Why is not he in the army ?”  “Call the police,”  “ Let us all report him,” “Let us make him give us our fares back,”  “Yes, that is it, let us make him give us our fares back.”  Everybody was on the side of the lady and the dog.
            That little animal sat blinking at the dim lights in happy unconsciousness of the rumpus of which he was the cause.
            The conductor came to the door.  “What is your number?” said one taking out a pocket-book, with a gesture of terrible things,  “There is my number,” said the conductor imperturbably.  “Give us our fares back – you have engaged to carry us – you can not leave us here all right.”  No fares back,” said the conductor.
            Two or three of the passengers got out and disappeared into the night.  The conductor took another turn on the pavement, then went and had a talk with the driver.  Another bus, the last on the road, sailed by, indifferent to the shouts of the passengers to stop.  “ They stick by each other, the villains,” was the comment.
            Some one pulled the bell violently.  That brought the driver round to the door.  “Who’s conductor of this bus ?”  He said, and paused for a reply.  None coming, he returned to his seat and resumed beating his arms across his chest.  There was no hope in that quarter.  A policeman strolled up and looked in at the door.  An avalanche of indignant protests and appeals burst on him. “Well, he has got his rules you know, he said generally.  “ Give your name and address,” “That is what he is being offered and he won’t take it.”  “Oh”, said the policeman, and he went away and took his stand a few yards down the street, where he was joined by two more constables.
            And still the little dog blinked at the lights, and the conductor walked to and from on the pavement like a captain on the quarter – deck in the hour of victory.  A young woman whose vice had risen high above the gale inside, descended on him with an air of threatening and slaughter.  He was immovable as cold as the night and hard as the pavement.  She passed on in a fury of importance to the three policemen who stood like a group of statuary up the steel watching the drama.  Then she came back, imperviously beckoned her “Young man” who had sat a silent witness of her rage, and vanished.  Others followed.  The bus was emptying.  Even the dashing young fellow who had demanded the number, and who had declared he would see this thing through if he sat there all night, had taken an opportunity to slip away. 
            Meanwhile the Pekinese party was passing through every stage of resistance to abject surrender.  “ I will go on the top,” said the sealskin lady at last.  “You must not.”  “I will”.  “You will have pneumonia”.  “Let me take it” (This from the man.)  Certainly not – she would die with her dog”.  When she had disappeared up the stairs the conductor came back, pulled the bell, and the bus went on.  He stood sourly triumphant while his conduct was savagely discussed in his face by the remnant of the party.
            Then the engine struck work, and the conductor went to the help of the driver.  It was a long job, and presently the lady with the dog stole down the stairs and re-entered the bus.  When the engine was put right the conductor came back and pulled the bell.  Then his eye fell on the dog and his hand went to the bell-rope again.  The driver looked around, the conductor pointed to the dog, the bus stopped, and the struggle recommenced with all the original features, the conductor walking the pavement, the driver smacking his arms on the box, the little dog blinking at the lights, the sealskin lady declaring that she would not go on the top and finally going.
 
Questions :
  1. Which theory of motivation do use to motivate the bus crew ? why ?
 
 
  1. If you were the conductor what would you do ?
 
 
  1. If you were the lady with the pet dog, what would you do ?
 
 
  1. Role play (a) conversation between the conductor and the lady with sealskin, (b) between policemen and the fellow passengers, and (c) between the conductor and the driver.
Effective HR Training & Development Management – Which theory of motivation do use to motivate the bus crew why

 

Welcome to Case Study Help

 
We at Case Study offer all types of online academic assistance, be it homework help, coursework help, case study help, Assignment help, Project Reports, Thesis, Research paper writing help.
And for each service, each subject and each topic, we dedicate an expert writer who has knowledge in that specific field of study. Experience impeccable academic writing service like never before.
Our experts understand that the time of the customers is very precious. The professors of universities and colleges are very rigorous about the submission deadlines of projects or assignments. Hence, the key objective of our case study help service is to deliver the assignments to the customers even before the promised submission deadlines.
We keep the quality measures for all papers which mean we will provide best essays. Our editing services are also excellent. Before submitting any essays, we will check whether the papers writer well or not. The high standards of academic writing will exceed your expectations. With our quality service, we have satisfied more number of people across the world and also work with different universities in Australia, UK, USA, Dubai, Oman, etc.
IIBMS MBA CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS,
IIBMS MBA CASE STUDY SOLUTIONS,
IIBMS EMBA CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS,
IIBMS EMBA CASE STUDY SOLUTIONS,
IIBMS DMS CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS,
IIBMS DMS CASE STUDY SOLUTIONS,
IIBMS MMS CASE STUDY ANSWER SHEETS

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